If it were not for Betty Winquest Cooper, I would not be the one telling this story. A college friend of mine from Nebraska Wesleyan University, Betty was employed by John Collier as executive secretary of the new Institute of Ethnic Affairs in 1946, and it was she who recommended that I be hired as editor of publications. Upon graduating from Wesleyan in 1945, Betty had gone directly to Washington, D.C., for management training in the federal government by the National Institute of Public Affairs. Part of her internship had included working with Collier in the Bureau of Indian Affairs. I had gone to New York City and was getting my master’s degree from the Graduate School of Journalism at Columbia University in June of 1946. We were the Institute’s only paid staff members throughout the most critical four years when the action of this book was taking place. We shared an office; we shared an appreciation for cultures other than our own; we shared an understanding of democratic government; and we became lifelong friends. Betty has participated in dozens of ways in the creation of this book.
I am also indebted to Carlos Taitano, who read the first draft of my manuscript and encouraged me to include more about the cultural history of Guam. He also made other worthwhile suggestions. Carlos was the young Guam Assemblyman who notified the press in Hawai‘i when the lower house of the Guam Congress walked out in protest against continued United States Navy rule in 1949. He later became known to some as “Mr. Organic Act.” Carlos, at eighty-eight, and I, at eighty-one, were lucky to be alive in 2005 when the manuscript was being revised.
I am particularly grateful to Dr. Lee D. Carter, coeditor of Guam History: Perspectives, Vol. 1, whom I met on Guam in the year 2000 and who asked me for a chapter for the intended Perspectives, Vol. 2. While preparing to write a chapter, I discovered I had a whole book.
It was Robert F. Rogers, author of Destiny’s Landfall, the comprehensive history of Guam first published in 1995, who read and did the first cutting of my overlong manuscript and who constantly encouraged me to be patient about the publishing process, as this was my first book.
(p.x) Others who read and commented on my first draft included Dirk Ballendorf, director of the Micronesian Area Research Center and professor of History and Micronesian Studies at the University of Guam; Marjorie G. Driver, curator of the Spanish Documents Collection at the Micronesian Area Research Center; Arnold Liebowitz, author of Defining Status; Byron B. Bender, editor, Oceanic Linguistics, who spent several years in Micronesia as an administrator; Alfred Laureta, retired judge of the U.S. District Court, Saipan, N.M.I., Joseph Lehman, former attorney in the Marshall Islands; Retired Navy Commander Richard Takahashi, who spent years on Guam and in the Pentagon during the Vietnam War; John Fisher, retired English professor at Goshen College and a peace activist who wrote the first favorable review; and Virginia Manley, retired Assistant Superintendent Concord Community Schools, a close friend who was the first to wade through my long manuscript and recognize its historical significance.
Archivists who went the extra mile in helping me obtain historical photos included Lewis Wyman and Kenneth Johnson at the U.S. Library of Congress; Pauline Testerman at the Harry S. Truman Library; Kim Robinson at the Interior Museum; an unnamed staff at the National Archives and Records Administration; and Monica Storie, Lou Nededog, John Sablan, and Perry Pangelinan at the Micronesian Area Research Center, who spent hours finding suitable photos.
Rod Liechty, a retired teacher of both art and history at Elkhart Central High School, suggested cover designs for the book. Julie Barth, president of Pearl Design, gave me constant encouragement as well as tutorials on the use of my new IMac G-5 computer. Jeff Hudson, a history buff at Express Press in Elkhart, expedited multitudinous copies of the manuscript every time I ordered them.
Most of all, I want to thank Bill Hamilton, director of the University of Hawai‘i Press, who believed enough in what I was writing to take the manuscript to his editorial board for approval and was supportive all the rest of the way; Ann Ludeman, managing editor, who actually had lived on Guam in the 1970s and could closely relate to what she was reading; and Barbara Folsom, manuscript editor, whose refinement of what I had written was beautifully done and mutually agreeable in every respect.
To my grown sons, Tom, Richard and Doug Cogan, who have interesting careers of their own, just let me say thanks for making suggestions and standing by as the months grew into years while I worked on the book.