This introductory chapter provides a background of the concept of the “new man.” The communist movement of the last century was remarkably successful worldwide in establishing the party-state and carrying out projects aimed at a total social transformation. However, behind the ideological, political, and social changes was a more ambitious and comprehensive goal: to remold the mind, psychology, and even character of individuals by means of various party and state policies designed for a “new man” and, through this “new man,” to make history and perpetuate the revolution. The “Soviet Man,” “Mao's good soldiers,” and “Let them all become Che” are only a few examples of the regimes' aspirations for the creation of such a new person.
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