Rethinking Filipino “American” Settler Empowerment in the U.S. Colony of Hawai‘i
This chapter argues that Filipinos in Hawai‘i are settlers who have been maneuvered by the U.S. settler state against Hawaiians, despite their shared histories of American colonization. Through analyses of works by public educator Joshua Agsalud, Lilo Bonipasyo, a sakada (contract laborer) in Virgilio Felipe's biography Hawai‘i: A Pilipino Dream, and community activist Zachary Labez, this chapter illustrates the continuities between U.S. colonization of the Philippines and the “Americanization” of Filipinos in Hawai‘i. It concludes by contrasting former Hawai‘i governor Benjamin Cayetano's opposition to struggles for Hawaiian self-determination with the work of ten Filipina settler activists in Hawai‘i who supported Hawaiians opposed to proposed military training on the Windward side of O‘ahu.
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